complete_ra implements a random assignment procedure in which fixed numbers of units are assigned to treatment conditions. The canonical example of complete random assignment is a procedure in which exactly m of N units are assigned to treatment and N-m units are assigned to control.

Users can set the exact number of units to assign to each condition with m or m_each. Alternatively, users can specify probabilities of assignment with prob or prob_each and complete_ra will infer the correct number of units to assign to each condition. In a two-arm design, complete_ra will either assign floor(N*prob) or ceiling(N*prob) units to treatment, choosing between these two values to ensure that the overall probability of assignment is exactly prob. In a multi-arm design, complete_ra will first assign floor(N*prob_each) units to their respective conditions, then will assign the remaining units using simple random assignment, choosing these second-stage probabilities so that the overall probabilities of assignment are exactly prob_each.

In most cases, users should specify N and not more than one of m, m_each, prob, prob_each, or num_arms.

If only N is specified, a two-arm trial in which N/2 units are assigned to treatment is assumed. If N is odd, either floor(N/2) units or ceiling(N/2) units will be assigned to treatment.

complete_ra(N, m = NULL, m_unit = NULL, m_each = NULL, prob = NULL,
prob_unit = NULL, prob_each = NULL, num_arms = NULL,
conditions = NULL, check_inputs = TRUE)

## Value

A vector of length N that indicates the treatment condition of each unit. Is numeric in a two-arm trial and a factor variable (ordered by conditions) in a multi-arm trial.

## Examples

# Two-arm Designs
Z <- complete_ra(N = 100)
table(Z)
#> Z
#>  0  1
#> 50 50
Z <- complete_ra(N = 100, m = 50)
table(Z)
#> Z
#>  0  1
#> 50 50
Z <- complete_ra(N = 100, m_unit = rep(50, 100))
table(Z)
#> Z
#>  0  1
#> 50 50
Z <- complete_ra(N = 100, prob = .111)
table(Z)
#> Z
#>  0  1
#> 89 11
Z <- complete_ra(N = 100, prob_unit = rep(0.1, 100))
table(Z)
#> Z
#>  0  1
#> 90 10
Z <- complete_ra(N = 100, conditions = c("control", "treatment"))
table(Z)
#> Z
#>   control treatment
#>        50        50

# Multi-arm Designs
Z <- complete_ra(N = 100, num_arms = 3)
table(Z)
#> Z
#> T1 T2 T3
#> 34 33 33
Z <- complete_ra(N = 100, m_each = c(30, 30, 40))
table(Z)
#> Z
#> T1 T2 T3
#> 30 30 40
Z <- complete_ra(N = 100, prob_each = c(.1, .2, .7))
table(Z)
#> Z
#> T1 T2 T3
#> 10 20 70
Z <- complete_ra(N = 100, conditions = c("control", "placebo", "treatment"))
table(Z)
#> Z
#>   control   placebo treatment
#>        33        34        33
# Special Cases
# Two-arm trial where the conditions are by default "T1" and "T2"
Z <- complete_ra(N = 100, num_arms = 2)
table(Z)
#> Z
#> T1 T2
#> 50 50
# If N = m, assign with 100% probability
complete_ra(N=2, m=2)
#>  1 1
# Up through randomizr 0.12.0,
complete_ra(N=1, m=1) # assigned with 50% probability
#>  1# This behavior has been deprecated