Drawing discrete data based on probabilities or latent traits is a common task that can be cumbersome. Each function in our discrete drawing set creates a different type of discrete data: draw_binary creates binary 0/1 data, draw_binomial creates binomial data (repeated trial binary data), draw_categorical creates categorical data, draw_ordered transforms latent data into observed ordered categories, draw_count creates count data (poisson-distributed).

## Usage

draw_binomial(
trials = 1,
N = length(prob),
latent = NULL,
quantile_y = NULL
)

draw_categorical(
N = NULL,
latent = NULL,
category_labels = NULL
)

draw_ordered(
breaks = c(-1, 0, 1),
break_labels = NULL,
N = length(x),
latent = NULL,
strict = FALSE,
)

draw_count(
N = length(mean),
latent = NULL,
quantile_y = NULL
)

draw_binary(
N = length(prob),
latent = NULL,
quantile_y = NULL
)

draw_quantile(type, N)

## Arguments

prob

A number or vector of numbers representing the probability for binary or binomial outcomes; or a number, vector, or matrix of numbers representing probabilities for categorical outcomes. If you supply a link function, these underlying probabilities will be transformed.

trials

for draw_binomial, the number of trials for each observation

N

number of units to draw. Defaults to the length of the vector of probabilities or latent data you provided.

latent

If the user provides a link argument other than identity, they should provide the variable latent rather than prob or mean

link function between the latent variable and the probability of a positive outcome, e.g. "logit", "probit", or "identity". For the "identity" link, the latent variable must be a probability.

quantile_y

A vector of quantiles; if provided, rather than drawing stochastically from the distribution of interest, data will be drawn at exactly those quantiles.

category_labels

vector of labels for the categories produced by draw_categorical. If provided, must be equal to the number of categories provided in the prob argument.

x

for draw_ordered, the latent data for each observation.

breaks

vector of breaks to cut a latent outcome into ordered categories with draw_ordered

break_labels

vector of labels for the breaks to cut a latent outcome into ordered categories with draw_ordered. (Optional)

strict

Logical indicating whether values outside the provided breaks should be coded as NA. Defaults to FALSE, in which case effectively additional breaks are added between -Inf and the lowest break and between the highest break and Inf.

mean

for draw_count, the mean number of count units for each observation

type

The number of buckets to split data into. For a median split, enter 2; for terciles, enter 3; for quartiles, enter 4; for quintiles, 5; for deciles, 10.

## Value

A vector of data in accordance with the specification; generally numeric but for some functions, including draw_ordered and draw_categorical, may be factor if labels are provided.

## Details

For variables with intra-cluster correlations, see draw_binary_icc and draw_normal_icc

## Examples


# Drawing binary values (success or failure, treatment assignment)
fabricate(N = 3,
p = c(0, .5, 1),
binary = draw_binary(prob = p))
#>   ID   p binary
#> 1  1 0.0      0
#> 2  2 0.5      0
#> 3  3 1.0      1

# Drawing binary values with probit link (transforming continuous data
# into a probability range).
fabricate(N = 3,
x = 10 * rnorm(N),
binary = draw_binary(latent = x, link = "probit"))
#>   ID         x binary
#> 1  1 -6.109455      0
#> 2  2 12.518842      1
#> 3  3  2.503195      1

# Repeated trials: draw_binomial
fabricate(N = 3,
p = c(0, .5, 1),
binomial = draw_binomial(prob = p, trials = 10))
#>   ID   p binomial
#> 1  1 0.0        0
#> 2  2 0.5        4
#> 3  3 1.0       10

# Ordered data: transforming latent data into observed, ordinal data.
# useful for survey responses.
fabricate(N = 3,
x = 5 * rnorm(N),
ordered = draw_ordered(x = x,
breaks = c(-Inf, -1, 1, Inf)))
#>   ID         x ordered
#> 1  1  4.333357       3
#> 2  2  3.080771       3
#> 3  3 -7.412788       1

# Providing break labels for latent data.
fabricate(N = 3,
x = 5 * rnorm(N),
ordered = draw_ordered(x = x,
breaks = c(-Inf, -1, 1, Inf),
break_labels = c("Not at all concerned",
"Somewhat concerned",
"Very concerned")))
#>   ID          x              ordered
#> 1  1  0.6809368   Somewhat concerned
#> 2  2  6.4749434       Very concerned
#> 3  3 -6.4532501 Not at all concerned

# Count data: useful for rates of occurrences over time.
fabricate(N = 5,
x = c(0, 5, 25, 50, 100),
theft_rate = draw_count(mean=x))
#>   ID   x theft_rate
#> 1  1   0          0
#> 2  2   5          3
#> 3  3  25         25
#> 4  4  50         53
#> 5  5 100        113

# Categorical data: useful for demographic data.
fabricate(N = 6, p1 = runif(N), p2 = runif(N), p3 = runif(N),
cat = draw_categorical(cbind(p1, p2, p3)))
#>   ID        p1         p2        p3 cat
#> 1  1 0.3385308 0.30210861 0.5196348   3
#> 2  2 0.8270794 0.62393433 0.1792204   1
#> 3  3 0.7520461 0.24698135 0.5736056   2
#> 4  4 0.2347526 0.09599854 0.6285673   3
#> 5  5 0.3393005 0.18790346 0.2713756   1
#> 6  6 0.3458746 0.03519621 0.5784195   3